Recent media coverage has focused on the potential for unique COVID-19 risks faced by smokers and vapers.

Some of these conclusions could not be supported by data, leading to public health inquiries focused on the following questions:

  • Does smoking or vaping change the risk of contracting the COVID-19 disease caused by the virus?
  • Does smoking or vaping create underlying vulnerabilities (e.g. pre-existing lung conditions) or resilience that make the disease more serious or lethal or less serious for those who do contract it?
  • Does smoking or vaping change the way the disease is transmitted from person to person - does smoking or vaping make people more or less infectious?
  • Does switching from smoking to vaping, or quitting completely, change the profile of the risks to the individual?

Answers to those questions will provide critical evidence necessary to inform policies and guide appropriate communications to current tobacco users.

We have identified 200+ publicly available studies on COVID-19 hospitalizations where smoking status is available to help address some of these questions.

Preliminary Publicly Available Studies on COVID-19 & Tobacco Use

Information updated as of 8/06/20. COVID-19 science is rapidly developing. Study conclusions may be limited due to non-peer reviewed status or limited sample size.

Date Title Authors Geography Vaping Data
8/4/2020 Clinical Characteristics and Severity of COVID-19 Disease in Patients from Boston Area Hospitals HT Dashti, D Bates, JM Fiskio, EC Roche, S Mora, O Demler USA No Data
8/4/2020 Clinical course and severity outcome indicators among COVID 19 hospitalized patients in relation to comorbidities distribution Mexican cohort G Carrillo, N Mendez Dominguez, KD Santos Zaldivar, A Rochel Perez, M Azuela Morales, O Cuevas Koh, A Alvarez Baeza Mexico No Data
8/1/2020 Quantification of the association between predisposing health conditions, demographic, and behavioural factors with hospitalisation, intensive care unit admission, and death from COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis NV Fernandez Villalobos, JJ Ott, CJ, Klett-Tammen, A Bockey, P Vanella, G Krause, B Lange Worldwide No Data
8/1/2020 Sex-specificity of mortality risk factors among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in New York City: prospective cohort study T Jun, S Nirenberg, P Kovatch, KI Huang USA No Data
7/31/2020 COVID-19 case-fatality rate and demographic and socioeconomic influencers: a worldwide spatial regression analysis based on country-level data Y Cao, A Hiyoshi, S Montgomery Worldwide No Data
7/30/2020 Characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis and adverse outcomes in Mexico: an analysis of 89,756 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. TV Giannouchos, RA Sussman, JM Mier, K Poulas, K Farsalinos Mexico No Data
7/30/2020 Prediction model and risk scores of ICU admission and mortality in COVID-19 Z Zhao, A Chen, W Hou, JM Graham, H Li, PS Richman, HC Thode, AJ Singer, TQ Duong USA No Data
7/30/2020 Nicotine-replacement therapy, as a surrogate of smoking, and the risk of hospitalization with Covid-19 and all-cause mortality: a nationwide, observational cohort study in France M Zureik, B Baricault, C Vabre, L Semenzato, J Drouin, F Cuenot, L Penso, P Herlemont, E Sbidian, A Weill, M Molimard, R Dray-Spira, J Botton France No Data
7/30/2020 Early Clinical Factors Predicting the Development of Critical Disease in Japanese Patients with COVID-19: A Single-Center Retrospective, Observational Study T Higuchi, T Nishida, H Iwahashi, O Morimura, Y Otani, Y Okauchi, M Yokoe, N Suzuki, M Inada, K Abe Japan No Data
7/30/2020 Multimorbidity patterns among COVID-19 deaths: considerations for a better medical practice JA Fernandez-Nino, JA Guerra-Gomez, AJ Idrovo-Velandia Colombia No Data
7/30/2020 Disparities in Case Frequency and Mortality of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Among Various States in the United States RS Loomba, G Aggarwal, S Aggarwal, S Flores, EG Villarreal, J Farias, CJ Lavie USA No Data
7/29/2020 Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and its comparison with influenza pneumonia. J Qu, LK Chang, X Tang, Y Du, X Yang, X Liu, P Han, Y Xue China No Data
7/29/2020 Eleven Routine Clinical Features Predict COVID-19 Severity K Zhou, Y Sun, L Li, Z Zang, J Wang, J Li, J Liang, F Zhang, Q Zhang, W Ge, H Chen, X Sun, L Yue, X Wu, B Shen, J Xu, H Zhu, S Chen, H Yang, S Huang, M Peng, D Lv, C Zhang, H Zhao, L Hong, Z Zhou, H Chen, X Dong, C Tu, M Li, Y Zhu, B Chen, SZ Li, T Guo China No Data
7/29/2020 Descriptive epidemiology of 16,780 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the United States S Rizzo, D Chawla, K Zalocusky, D Keebler, J Chia, L Lindsay, V Yau, T Kamath, L Tsai USA No Data
7/27/2020 The Outcome of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction H Altamimi, Y Alahmad, F Khazal, M Elhassan, H AlBinali, A Arabi, A AlQahtani, N Asaad, M Al-Hijji, T Hamid, I Rafie, AS Omrani, S AlKaabi, A Alkhal, M AlMalslmani, M Ali, M Alkhani, M AlNesf, S Abu Jalala, S Arafa, R ElSousy, O AlTamimi, E Soaly, C Abi khalil, J Al Suwaidi Qatar No Data
7/27/2020 Predicting Critical State after COVID-19 Diagnosis Using Real-World Data from 20152 Confirmed US Cases MD Rinderknecht, Y Klopfenstein USA No Data
7/26/2020 Characteristics and Outcomes of 599 Patients Infected with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: Based on an Online Reported Sample D Liu, Y Wang, J Wang, J Liu, Y Yue, W Liu, Z Wang China No Data
7/24/2020 Reducing COVID-19 hospitalization risk through behavior change ML Adams, DL Katz, J Grandpre, D Shenson USA No Data
7/23/2020 COVID-19 and associations with frailty and multimorbidity: a prospective analysis of UK Biobank participants SJ Woolford, S D'Angelo, EM Curtis, CM Parsons, KA Ward, EM Dennison, HP Patel, C Cooper, NC Harvey United Kingdom No Data
7/14/2020 Smoking and Angiotensin-converting Enzyme Inhibitor/Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Cessation to Limit Coronavirus Disease 2019 M Rossato, A Di Vincenzo No Data
7/14/2020 Clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics and risk factors for severity and mortality of 289 hospitalized COVID-19 patients. JJ Zhang, YY Cao, G Tan, X Dong, BC Wang, J Lin, YQ Yan, GH Liu, M Akdis, CA Akdis, YD Gao China No Data
7/10/2020 Natural killer cell activation related to clinical outcome of COVID-19 C Maucourant, COVID-19 Study Group Sweden No Data
7/4/2020 Age Matters: COVID-19 Prevalence in a Vaping Adolescent Population - An Observational Study N Tandan, MR Regmi, R Maini, AM Ibrahim, C Koester, O Lara Garcia, P Parajuli, M Al-Akchar, A Kulkarni, R Robinson USA Yes
7/1/2020 Smoking prevalence and COVID-19 in Europe P Tsigaris, JA Teixeira da Silva 38 European countries Yes
6/30/2020 COVID-19, smoking, vaping and quitting: A representative population survey in England H Tattan-Birch, O Perski, SE Jackson, L Shahab, R West, J Brown United Kingdom Yes
6/29/2020 Smoking, SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: A review of reviews considering implications for public health policy and practice. EJ Grundy, T Suddek, FT Filippidis, A Majeed, S Coronini-Cronberg No Data
6/29/2020 Comparison of the clinical characteristics and outcomes of hospitalized adult COVID-19 and influenza patients: a prospective observational study R Auvinen, H Nohynek, R Syrjänen, J Ollgren, T Kerttula, J Mäntylä, N Ikonen, R Loginov, A Haveri, S Kurkela, K Skogberg Finland No Data
6/26/2020 Factors Associated with Hospitalization and Disease Severity in a Racially and Ethnically Diverse Population of COVID-19 Patients A Mendy, S Apewokin, AA Wells, AL Morrow USA No Data
6/26/2020 Clinical course and potential predicting factors of pneumonia of adult patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A retrospective observational analysis of 193 confirmed cases in Thailand WA Pongpirul, S Wiboonchutikul, L Charoenpong, N Panitantum, A Vachiraphan, S Uttayamakul, K Pongpirul, W Manosuthi, W Prasithsirikul Thailand No Data
6/25/2020 Current smoking, former smoking, and adverse outcome among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. K Farsalinos, A Barbouni, K Poulas, R Polosa, P Caponnetto, R Niaura Multi-national No Data
6/22/2020 Are men who smoke at higher risk for a more severe case of COVID-19 than women who smoke? A Systematic Review A Rodgers, EK Indreberg, L Alfallaj, M Nadkarni, Z Kabir China No Data
6/22/2020 Clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in a tertiary community hospital in upstate New York J Lenka, MS Chhabria, N Sharma, BEx Tan, L Boppana, S Venugopal, DS Sondhi USA No Data
6/22/2020 Epidemiological and clinical characteristics in patients with SARS-CoV-2 antibody negative probable COVID-19 in Wuhan L Duan, S Zhang, M Guo, E Zhou, J Fan, X Wang, L Wang, F Wu, Y Jin China No Data
6/20/2020 How nicotine can inhibit cytokine storm in the lungs and prevent or lessen the severity of COVID-19 infection? M Kloc, RM Ghobrial, JZ Kubiak No Data
6/20/2020 Impact of smoking status on disease severity and mortality of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis A Karanasos, K Aznaouridis, G Latsios, A Synetos, S Plitaria, D Tousoulis, K Toutouzas Multi-national No Data
6/20/2020 Modeling COVID19 mortality in the US: Community context and mobility matter SF McGough, RW Gan, R Tibshirani, AM Meyer USA No Data
6/20/2020 PROGNOSTIC FACTORS IN SPANISH COVID-19 PATIENTS: A CASE SERIES FROM BARCELONA A Siso-Almirall, B Kostov, M Mas-Heredia, S Vilanova-Rotllan, E Sequeira-Aymar, M Sans-Corrales, E Sant-Arderiu, L Cayuelas-Redondo, A Martinez-Perez, N Garcia Plana, A Anguita-Guimet, J Benavent-Areu Spain No Data
6/20/2020 The influence of comorbidity on the severity of COVID-19 disease: systematic review and analysis N Zaki, EA Mohamed, S Ibrahim, G Khan China No Data
6/19/2020 Epidemiological Risk Factors Associated with Death and Severe Disease in Patients Suffering From COVID-19: A Comprehensive Systematic Review and Meta-analysis K Dorjee, H Kim Multi-national No Data
6/18/2020 COVID-19 outcomes, risk factors and associations by race: a comprehensive analysis using electronic health records data in Michigan Medicine T Gu, JA Mack, M Salvatore, SP Sankar, TS Valley, K Singh, BK Nallamothu, S Kheterpal, L Lisabeth, LG Fritsche, BG Mukherjee USA No Data
6/17/2020 Characteristics Associated with Hospitalization Among Patients with COVID-19 - Metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, March-April 2020 ME Killerby, R Link-Gelles, SC Haight, CA Schrodt, L England, DJ Gomes, M Shamout, K Pettrone, K O'Laughlin, A Kimball, EF Blau, E Burnett, CN Ladva, CM Szablewski, M Tobin-D'Angelo, N Oosmanally, C Drenzek, DJ Murphy, JM Blum, J Hollberg, B Lefkove, FW Brown, T Shimabukuro, CM Midgley, JE Tate; CDC COVID-19 Response Clinical Team USA No Data
6/16/2020 Risk factors for death in 1859 subjects with COVID-19. L Chen, J Yu, W He, L Chen, G Yuan, F Dong, W Chen, Y Cao, J Yang, L Cai, D Wu, Q Ran, L Li, Q Liu, W Ren, F Gao, H Wang, Z Chen, RP Gale, Q Li, Y Hu China No Data
6/16/2020 Covid-19 in Chile. The experience of a Regional reference Center. Preliminary report F Olivares, D Munoz, A Fica, I Delama, I Alvarez, M Navarrete, M Blackburn, P Garrido, J Granjean Chile No Data
6/16/2020 An International Review of Tobacco Use and the COVID-19 Pandemic: Examining Hospitalization, Asymptomatic Cases, and Severity L Balabanski Multi-national No Data
6/14/2020 National Smoking Rates Correlate Inversely with COVID-19 Mortality MJ Norden, DH Avery, JG Norden, DR Haynor Multi-national No Data
6/12/2020 Comorbidity and Sociodemographic determinants in COVID-19 Mortality in an US Urban Healthcare System AL Wang, X Zhong, Y Hurd USA No Data
6/12/2020 Ethnicity and outcomes in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 infection in East London: an observational cohort study VJ Apea, YI Wan, R Dhairyawan, ZA Puthucheary, RM Pearse, CM Orkin, JR Prowle United Kingdom No Data
6/12/2020 Multimorbidity, Polypharmacy, and COVID-19 infection within the UK Biobank cohort. R McQueenie, H Foster, B Jani, BD Katikireddi, SV Sattar, N Pell, FK Ho, CL Niedzwiedz, CE Hastie, J Anderson, PB Mark, M Sullivan, CA ODonnell, FS Mair, BI Nicholl United Kingdom No Data
6/11/2020 Cytokine Release Syndrome (CRS) and Nicotine in COVID-19 Patients: Trying to Calm the Storm J Gonzalez-Rubio, C Navarro-Lopez, E Lopez-Najera, A Lopez-Najera, L Jimenez-Diaz, JD Navarro-Lopez, A Najera No Data
6/11/2020 COVID-19 and associations with frailty and multimorbidity: a prospective analysis of UK Biobank participants SJ Woolford, S D'angelo, EM Curtis, CM Parsons, KA Ward, EM Dennison, HP Patel, C Cooper, NC Harvey United Kingdom No Data
6/10/2020 SARS-CoV-2 COVID-19 susceptibility and lung inflammatory storm by smoking and vaping. G Kaur, G Lungarella, I Rahman Vaping and Smoking Data
6/8/2020 Meta-analysis Investigating the Relationship Between Clinical Features, Outcomes, and Severity of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Pneumonia J Li, X He, ZW Yuanyuan, X Li, Y Zhang, S Li, C Guan, Z Gao, G Dong China No Data
6/8/2020 Risk factors for disease progression in mild to moderate COVID-19 patients- a multi-center observational study. Y Cen, X Chen, Y Shen, XH Zhang, Y Lei, C Xu, WR Jiang, HT Xu, Y Chen, J Zhu, LL Zhang, YH Liu China No Data
6/5/2020 A nicotinic hypothesis for Covid-19 with preventive and therapeutic implications. JP Changeux, Z Amoura, FA Rey, M Miyara No Data
6/5/2020 Characteristics and Outcomes of Hospitalized Young Adults with Mild to Moderate Covid-19 at a University Hospital in India AK Sharma, A Ahmed, VN Baig, P Dhakad, G Dalela, S Kacker, VR Panwar, RB Panwar, R Gupta India No Data
6/5/2020 Review of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses on COVID-19 E Ibrahim, NE Ibrahim No Data
6/3/2020 Risk factors associated with mortality in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A prospective, longitudinal, unicenter study in Reus, Spain S Iftimie, AF Lopez-Azcona, M Vicente-Miralles, R Descarrega-Reina, A Hernandez-Aguilera, F Riu, JM Simo, P Garrido, J Joven, J Camps, A Castro Spain No Data
6/1/2020 Ethnic Disparities in Hospitalisation for COVID-19 in England: The Role of Socioeconomic Factors, Mental Health, and Inflammatory and Pro-inflammatory Factors in a Community-based Cohort Study C Lassale, B Gaye, M Hamer, CR Gale, G David Batty United Kingdom No Data
6/2/2020 Risk factors for mortality in pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection RJ Martinez-Portilla, A Sotiriadis, J Torres-Torres, C Christos, A Hawkins-Villarreal, JR Villafan-Bernal, RA Gurrola-Ochoa, F Figueras Mexico No Data
6/2/2020 Greater risk of severe COVID-19 in non-White ethnicities is not explained by cardiometabolic, socioeconomic, or behavioural factors, or by 25(OH)-vitamin D status: study of 1,326 cases from the UK Biobank Z Raisi-Estabragh, C McCracken, MS Bethell, J Cooper, C Cooper, MJ Caulfield, PB Munroe, NC Harvey, SE Petersen United Kingdom No Data
6/2/2020 Age differences in clinical features and outcomes in patients with COVID-19, Jiangsu, China: a retrospective, multi-center cohort study H Luo, S Liu, Y Wang, PA Phillips-Howard, Y Yang, S Ju, D Wang China No Data
6/1/2020 Smoking and the risk of COVID-19 in a large observational population study A Israel, I Feldhamer, A Lahad, D Levin-Zamir, G Lavie Israel No Data
5/29/2020 Non-communicable diseases and inequalities increase risk of death among COVID-19 patients in Mexico JP Gutierrez, SM Bertozzi Mexico No Data
5/28/2020 Does active smoking worsen Covid-19? A Carmona-Bayonas, P Jimenez-Fonseca, Á Sánchez Arraez, F Álvarez Manceñido, E Castañón China No Data
5/26/2020 Clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Spain: results from the SEMI-COVID-19 Network. JM Casas Rojo, JM Anton Santos, J Millan Nunez-Cortes, C Lumbreras Bermejo, JM Ramos Rincon, E Roy-Vallejo, A Artero Mora, F Arnalich Fernandez, JM Garcia Brunen, JA Vargas Nunez, SJ Freire Castro, L Manzano, I Perales Fraile, A Crestelo Vieitez, F Puchades, E Rodilla, MN Solis Marquinez, D Bonet Tur, MdP Fidalgo Moreno, EM Fonseca Aizpuru, FJ Carrasco Sanchez, E Rabadan Pejenaute, M Rubio-Rivas, JD Torres Pena, R Gomez Huelgas Spain No Data
5/26/2020 Risk of infection and hospitalization by Covid-19 in Mexico: a case-control study J Berumen, M Schmulson, J Alegre, G Guerrero, G Olaiz, RM Wong-Chew, J Larriva-Sahd, C Cantu-Brito, A Ochoa-Guzman, A Garcilazo-Avila, C Gonzalez-Carballo, E Chiquete Mexico No Data
5/25/2020 Tobacco smoking and COVID-19 infection RN Van Zyl-Smit, G Richards, FT Leone No Data
5/25/2020 Risk factors affecting COVID-19 case fatality rate: A quantitative analysis of top 50 affected countries HP Goh, WI Mahari, NI Ahad, L Chaw, N Kifli, BH Goh, SF Yeoh, LC Ming Multiple No Data
5/25/2020 COVID-19 Outcomes in 4712 consecutively confirmed SARS-CoV2 cases in the city of Madrid. S Heili-Frades Spain No Data
5/23/2020 Morbid Obesity as an Independent Risk Factor for COVID-19 Mortality in Hospitalized Patients Younger Than 50 E Klang, G Kassim, S Soffer, R Freeman, MA Levin, DL Reich USA No Data
5/23/2020 Risk Factors for COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 related in-hospital and community deaths by Local Authority District in Great Britain SP Leighton, DJ Leighton, J Herron, R Upthegrove, J Cavanagh, G Gkoutos, B Cullen, PK Mallikarjun United Kingdom No Data
5/22/2020 Interim Analysis of Risk Factors for Severe Outcomes among a Cohort of Hospitalized Adults Identified through the U.S. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET) L Kim USA No Data
5/22/2020 Comorbidities, clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, imaging features, treatment strategies, and outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis CR Jutzeler, L Bourguignon, CV Weis, B Tong, C Wong, B Rieck, H Pargger, S Tschudin-Sutter, A Egli, K Borgwardt, M Walter Mostly China No Data
5/21/2020 Current tobacco smoking and risk from COVID-19: results from a population symptom app in over 2.4 million people NS Hopkinson, N Rossi, J El-Sayed Moustafa, AA Laverty, JK Quint, MB Freydin, A Visconti, B Murray, M Modat, S Ourselin, K Small, R Davies, J Wolf, T Spector, CJ Steves, M Falchi United Kingdom No Data
5/21/2020 COVID-19: the key role of pulmonary capillary leakage. An observational cohort study MA Wu, T Fossali, L Pandolfi, L Carsana, D Ottolina, V Frangipane, R Rech, A Tosoni, A Agarossi, C Cogliati, F Meloni, B Marchini, M Nebuloni, E Catena, R Colombo Italy No Data
5/19/2020 COVID-19: Counter-Intuitive Data on Smoking Prevalence and Therapeutic Implications for Nicotine R Polosa, G Caci No Data
5/18/2020 Early Experience with COVD-19 Patients at Academic Hospital in Southwestern United States R Shekhar, S Upadhyay, A Sheikh, J Atencio, D Kapuria USA No Data
5/17/2020 Evaluating the determinants of COVID-19 mortality: A cross-country study J Squalli No Data
5/16/2020 Progression, recovery and fatality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 related pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study H Wang, Y Lu, Q Lv, X Wu, T Hu, K Wang, Y Liu, Y Hu, L Yu, H Fei, Z Ba, X Lin China No Data
5/15/2020 Two important controversial risk factors in SARS-CoV-2 infection: Obesity and smoking AB Engin, ED Engin, A Engin No Data
5/15/2020 Severe obesity is associated with higher in-hospital mortality in a cohort of patients with COVID-19 in the Bronx, New York L Palaiodimos, DG Kokkinidis, W Li, D Karamanis, J Ognibene, S Arora, WN Southern, CS Mantzoros USA No Data
5/15/2020 Risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 among patients in the Oxford Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre primary care network: a cross-sectional study. S de Lusignan, J Dorward, A Correa, N Jones, O Akinyemi, G Amirthalingam, N Andrews, R Byford, G Dabrera, A Elliot, J Ellis, F Ferreira, J Lopez Bernal, C Okusi, M Ramsay, J Sherlock, G Smith, J Williams, G Howsam, M Zambon, M Joy, FDR Hobbs United Kingdom No Data
5/15/2020 Clinical Characteristics, Risk Factors and Outcomes Among the First Consecutive 1,096 Patients Diagnosed with COVID-19: The Kuwait Experience S Almazeedi, S Al Youha, MH Jamal, M Al-Haddad, A Al-Muhaini, F Al-Ghimlas, S Al-Sabah Kuwait No Data
5/15/2020 Non-white ethnicity, male sex, and higher body mass index, but not medications acting on the reninangiotensin system are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) hospitalisation: Review of the first 669 cases from the UK Biobank Z Raisi-Estabragh, C McCracken, M Ardissino, MS Bethell, J Cooper, C Cooper, NC Harvey, SE Petersen United Kingdom No Data
5/14/2020 Early estimation of the risk factors for hospitalisation and mortality by COVID-19 in Mexico MF Carrillo-Vega, G Salinas-Escudero, C Garcia-Pena, LM Gutierrez-Robledo, L Parra-Rodriguez Mexico No Data
5/14/2020 Epidemiology, risk factors and clinical course of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in a Swiss university hospital: an observational retrospective study J Regina, M Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, R Burger, P Filippidis, J Tschopp, F Desgranges, B Viala, E Kampouri, L Rochat, D Haefliger, M Belkoniene, C Fidalgo, A Kritikos, K Jaton, L Senn, AP Bart, LJ Pagani, O Manuel, L Lhopitallier Switzerland No Data
5/13/2020 Lifestyle Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Relation to COVID-19 Hospitalization: A Community-Based Cohort Study of 387,109 Adults in UK M Hamer, M Kivimaki, CR Gale, GD Batty United Kingdom No Data
5/11/2020 Tobacco Smoking and COVID-19 Pandemic: Old and New Issues. A Summary of the Evidence From the Scientific Literature MS Cattaruzza, V Zagà, S Gallus, P D'Argenio, G Gorini No Data
5/11/2020 Health and Demographic Impact on COVID-19 Infection and Mortality in US Counties Z Xie, D Li USA No Data
5/11/2020 Smoking and the risk of COVID-19 infection in the UK Biobank Prospective Study ER Cho, AS Slutsky, P Jha United Kingdom No Data
5/11/2020 Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 positive and complicated COVID-19 patient cohorts in Israel: A comparative analysis C Yanover, B Mizrahi, N Kalkstein, K Marcus, P Akiva, Y Barer, V Shalev, G Chodick Israel No Data
5/10/2020 Smoking Prevalence is Low in Symptomatic Patients Admitted for COVID-19 N Gaibazzi, D Tuttolomondo, A Guidorossi, A Botti, A Tedeschi, C Martini, M Mattioli Italy No Data
5/9/2020 Are Vapers More Susceptible to COVID-19 Infection? D Li, DP Croft, DJ Ossip, Z Xie USA Yes
5/8/2020 Active smoking and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The use of significance testing leads to an erroneous conclusion. E Lo, B Lasnier No Data
5/8/2020 Correlation between prevalence of tobacco smoking and risk and severity of COVID-19 at the national level in the European Union: an ecological study. A Gonzalez-Marron, JM Martinez-Sanchez European Union No Data
5/8/2020 Ethnicity, comorbidity, socioeconomic status, and their associations with COVID-19 infection in England: a cohort analysis of UK Biobank data A Prats-Uribe, R Paredes, D Prieto-Alhambra United Kingdom No Data
5/8/2020 Beyond Smoking Cessation: Investigating Medicinal Nicotine to Prevent and Treat COVID-19 HA Tindle, PA Newhouse, MS Freiberg No Data
5/6/2020 OpenSAFELY: factors associated with COVID-19-related hospital death in the linked electronic health records of 17 million adult NHS patients. E Williamson United Kingdom No Data
5/6/2020 Active Smoking Is Associated With Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): An Update of a Meta-Analysis FR Guo China No Data
5/6/2020 Clinical characteristics and fecal-oral transmission potential of patients with COVID-19 S Wang, J Tu, Y Sheng China No Data
5/6/2020 30-day mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the first wave of the Italian epidemic: a prospective cohort study A Giacomelli, AL Ridolfo, L Milazzo, L Oreni, D Bernacchia, M Siano, C Bonazzetti, M Schiuma, A Covizzi, M Passerini, M Piscaglia, M Coen, G Gubertini, G Rizzardini, C Cogliati, AM Brambilla, R Colombo, A Castelli, R Rech, A Riva, A Torre, L Meroni, S Rusconi, S Antinori, M Galli Italy No Data
5/5/2020 COVID-19, smoking, and inequalities: a cross-sectional survey of adults in the UK SE Jackson, J Brown, L Shahab, A Steptoe, D Fancourt United Kingdom No Data
5/5/2020 Clinical and Genetic Characteristics of Covid-19 Patients from UK Biobank DA Kolin, S Kulm, O Elemento United Kingdom No Data
5/5/2020 Risk Factors of the Severity of COVID-19: A Meta-Analysis A Rahman, NJ Sathi China No Data
5/5/2020 Pre-Existing Characteristics Associated with Covid-19 Illness Severity JE Ebinger, N Achamallah, Ji Achamallah, H Achamallah, BL Claggett, N Sun, P Botting, TT Nguyen, E Luong, EH Kim, E Park, Y Liu, R Rosenberry, Y Matusov, S Zhao, I Pedraza, T Zaman, M Thompson, K Raedschelders, AH Berg, JD Grein, PW Noble, SS Chugh, CN Bairey Merz, E Marban, JE Van Eyk, SD Solomon, CM Albert, P Chen, S Cheng USA No Data
5/4/2020 Analysis of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the Mount Sinai Health System using electronic medical records (EMR) reveals important prognostic factors for improved clinical outcomes Z Wang, AB Zheutlin, YH Kao, KL Ayers, SJ Gross, P Kovatch, S Nirenberg, AW Charney, GN Nadkarni, PF O'Reilly, AC Just, CR Horowitz, G Martin, AD Branch, BS Glicksberg, DS Charney, DL Reich, WK Oh, EE Schadt, R Chen, Li Chen L Chen USA No Data
5/4/2020 A national prospective cohort study of SARS/COV2 pandemic outcomes in the U.S.: The CHASING COVID Cohort M Robertson, S Kulkarni, A Berry, C Mirzayi, AR Maroko, R Zimba, D Westmoreland, C Grov, A Parcesepe, L Waldron, D Nash USA No Data
5/4/2020 A cohort of patients with COVID-19 in a major teaching hospital in Europe AM Borobia, AJ Carcas, F Arnalich, R Alvarez-Sala, J Montserrat, M Quintana, JC Figueira, RM Torres Santos-Olmo, J Garcia-Rodriguez, A Martin-Vega, E Ramirez, A Buno, G Martinez-Ales, N Garcia-Arenzana, M Marti de Gracia, F Moreno, F Reinoso-Barbero, A Martin-Quiros, A Rivera, J Mingorance, CC Carpio, D Prieto Arribas, E Rey Cuevas, M Prados, C Prados, JJ Rios, M Hernan, J Frias, J Arribas, R Arribas Spain No Data
5/2/2020 Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for COVID-19: results from UK Biobank FK Ho, CA Celis-Morales, SR Gray, SV Katikireddi, CL Niedzwiedz, C Hastie, DM Lyall, DL Ferguson, C Berry, DF Mackay, J Gill, M Gill, R Gill, JP Pell, N Sattar, PI Welsh United Kingdom No Data
5/1/2020 COVID-19 severe pneumonia in Mexico City - First experience in a Mexican hospital B Valente-Acosta, I Hoyo-Ulloa, L Espinosa-Aguilar, R Mendoza-Aguilar, J Garcia-Guerrero, D Ontanon-Zurita, B Gomez-Gomez, O Fueyo-Rodriguez, JM Vera-Zertuche, R Anzola-Arias, JV Jimenez-Ceja, D Horta-Capinteyro, C Olvera-Guzman, J Aguirre-Sanchez, J Franco-Granillo, L Jauregui-Camargo, E Sada-Diaz, R Saavedra-Perez-Salas, A Palomar-Lever, F Moreno-Sanchez Mexico No Data
4/29/2020 Current Smoking Is Not Associated With COVID-19 M Rossato, L Russo, S Mazzocut, A Di Vincenzo, P Fioretto, R Vettor Italy No Data
4/28/2020 Features of 16,749 hospitalised UK patients with COVID-19 using the ISARIC WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol AB Docherty, EM Harrison, CA Green, HE Hardwick, R Pius, L Norman, KA Holden, JM Read, F Dondelinger, G Carson, L Merson, J Lee, D Plotkin, L Sigfrid, S Halpin, C Jackson, C Gamble, PW Horby, JS Nguyen-Van-Tam, J Dunning, PJ Openshaw, JK Baillie, MG Semple United Kingdom No Data
4/27/2020 Association Between Clinical Manifestations and Prognosis in Patients With COVID-19 Y Tao, C Shaohang, Z Zhidan, C Xuejuan, L Yuanyuan, Y Sichun, J Peng, X Xuwen China No Data
4/25/2020 COVID-19 Fatality and Comorbidity Risk Factors among Confirmed Patients in Mexico P Solis, H Carreno Mexico No Data
4/23/2020 Systematic review of the prevalence of current smoking among hospitalized COVID‑19 patients in China: could nicotine be a therapeutic option? K Farsalinos, A Barbouni, R Niaura China No Data
4/23/2020 Risk factors of critical & mortal COVID-19 cases: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Z Zheng, F Peng, B Xu, J Zhao, H Liu, J Peng, Q Li, C Jiang, Y Zhou, S Liu, C Ye, P Zhang, Y Xing, H Guo, W Tang China No Data
4/23/2020 Smoking habit and hospitalization for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related pneumonia: The unsolved paradox behind the evidence. G Garufi, L Carbognin, A Orlandi, G Tortora, E Bria China No Data
4/23/2020 Clinical Characteristics of 20,662 Patients with COVID-19 in mainland China: A Systemic Review and Meta-analysis C Tang, K Zhang, W Wang, Z Pei, Z Liu, P Yuan, Z Guan, J Gu China No Data
4/20/2020 Epidemiology, clinical course, and outcomes of critically ill adults with COVID-19 in New York City: a prospective cohort study MJ Cummings, MR Baldwin, D Abrams, SD Jacobson, BJ Meyer, EM Balough, JG Aaron, J Claassen, LE Rabbani, J Hastie, BR Hochman, J Salazar-Schicchi, NH Yip, D Brodie, MR O'Donnell USA No Data
4/20/2020 Low Incidence of Daily Active Tobacco Smoking in Patients with Symptomatic COVID-19 M Miyara, F Tubach, V Pourcher, C Morelot-Panzini, J Pernet, J Haroche, S Lebbah, E Morawiec, G Gorochov, E Caumes, P Hausfater, A Combes, T Similowski, Z Amoura France No Data
4/17/2020 Obesity as a Risk Factor for Greater Severity of COVID-19 in Patients With Metabolic Associated Fatty Liver Disease KI Zheng, F Gao, X Wang, Q Sun, K Pan, T Wang, H Ma, W Liu, J George, M Zheng China No Data
4/16/2020 Smoking is Associated with COVID-19 Progression: A Meta-Analysis R Patanavanich, SA Glantz No Data
4/15/2020 The Impact of COPD and Smoking History on the Severity of Covid-19: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis Q Zhao, M Meng, R Kumar, Y Wu, J Huang, N Lian, Y Deng, S Lin China No Data
4/15/2020 Covid-19 Testing, Hospital Admission, and Intensive Care Among 2,026,227 United States Veterans Aged 54-75 Years CT Rentsch, F Kidwai-Khan, JP Tate, LS Park, JT King Jr., M Skanderson, RG Hauser, A Schultze, CI Jarvis, M Holodniy, V Lo Re III, KM Akgun, K Crothers, TH Taddei, MS Freiberg, AC Justice USA No Data
4/15/2020 Associations of clinical characteristics and antiviral drugs with viral RNA clearance in patients with COVID-19 in Guangzhou, China: a retrospective cohort study X Chen, Y Zhang, B Zhu, J Zeng, W Hong, X He, J Chen, H Zheng, S Qiu, Y Deng, J Chan, J Wang China No Data
4/13/2020 Factors associated with hospitalization and critical illness among 4,103 patients with COVID-19 disease in New York City CM Petrilli, SA Jones, J Yang, H Rajagopalan, LF O'Donnell, Y Chernyak, K Tobin, RJ Cerfolio, F Francois, LI Horwitz USA No Data
4/13/2020 Key to successful treatment of COVID-19: accurate identification of severe risks and early intervention of disease progression M Chen, C Tu, C Tan, X Zheng, X Wang, J Wu, Y Huang, Z Wang, Y Yan, Z Li, H Shan, J Liu, J Huang China No Data
4/13/2020 The characteristics of 50 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with and without ARDS M Dreher, A Kersten, J Bickenbach, P Balfanz, B Hartmann, C Cornelissen, A Daher, R Stöhr, M Kleines, SW Lemmen, JC Brokmann, T Müller, D Müller-Wieland, G Marx, N Marx Germany No Data
4/10/2020 Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients SC Tan Primarily China No Data
4/10/2020 Prevalence of Comorbidities in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. A Baradaran, MH Ebrahimzadeh, A Baradaran, AR Kachooei China No Data
4/10/2020 The relationship of COVID-19 severity with cardiovascular disease and its traditional risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis K Matsushita, N Ding, M Kou, X Hu, M Chen, Y Gao, Y Honda, D Dowdy, Y Mok, J Ishigami, LJ Appel China No Data
4/10/2020 Case fatality rate in COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis CN Kahathuduwa, CS Dhanasekara, S-H Chin China No Data
4/9/2020 COVID-19 and smoking I Berlin, D Thomas, A-L Le Faou, J Cornuz China No Data
4/9/2020 Correction to Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19 No Data
4/8/2020 Collision of the COVID-19 and Addiction Epidemics ND Volkow Global No Data
4/6/2020 Virologic and clinical characteristics for prognosis of severe COVID-19: a retrospective observational study in Wuhan, China S Fu, X Fu, Y Song, M Li, P-h Pan, T Tang, C Zhang, T Jiang, D Tan, X Fan, X Sha, J Ma, Y Huang, S Li, Y Zheng, Z Qian, Z Xiong, L Xiao, H Long, J Chen, Y Ouyang China No Data
4/2/2020 Smoking and COVID-19: Rapid evidence review for the Royal College of Physicians, London (UK) D Simons, J Brown, L Shahab, O Perski China No Data
4/1/2020 The COVID-19 infection in Italy: a statistical study of an abnormally severe disease G De Natale, V Ricciardi, G De Luca, D De Natale, G Di Meglio, A Ferragamo, V Marchitelli, A Piccolo, A Scala, R Somma, E Spina, C Troise Italy No Data
4/1/2020 Risk factors for severe corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients : a systematic review and meta analysis L Xu, M Yaqian, Gang Chen China No Data
4/1/2020 Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Underlying Health Conditions Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 — United States, February 12–March 28, 2020 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; N Chow, K Fleming-Dutra, R Gierke, A Hall, M Hughes, T Pilishvili, M Ritchey, K Roguski, T Skoff, E Ussery USA No Data
3/31/2020 Comorbidity and its impact on 1,590 patients with COVID-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis W-j Guan, W-h Liang, Y Zhao, H-r Liang, Z-s Chen, Y-m Li, X-q Liu, R-c Chen, C-l Tang, T Wang, C-q Ou, L Li, P-y Chen, L Sang, W Wang, J-f Li, C-c Li, L-m Ou, B Cheng, S Xiong, Z-y Ni, Y Hu, J Xiang, L Liu, H Shan, C-l Lei, Y-x Peng, L Wei, Y Liu, Y-h Hu, P Peng, J-m Wang, J-y Liu, Z Chen, G Li, Z-j Zheng, S-q Qiu, J Luo, C-j Ye, S-y Zhu, L-l Cheng, F Ye, S-y Li, J-p Zheng, N-f Zhang, N-s Zhong, J-x He China No Data
3/31/2020 Is nicotine exposure linked to cardiopulmonary vulnerability to COVID-19 in the general population? J Olds, N Kabbani China No Data
3/31/2020 Smokeless tobacco use and the COVID-19 pandemic A Singh, P Chaturvedi India No Data
3/30/2020 Factors associated with prolonged viral shedding and impact of Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection D Yan, X-y Liu, Y-n Zhu, L Huang, B-t Dan, G-j Zhang, Y-h Gao China No Data
3/30/2020 Radiographic Findings and other Predictors in Adults with Covid-19 K Li, D Chen, S Chen, Y Feng, C Chang, Z Wang, N Wang, G Zhen China No Data
3/30/2020 Case-Fatality Rate and Characteristics of Patients Dying in Relation to COVID-19 in Italy G Onder, G Rezza, S Brusaferro No Data
3/27/2020 Prevalence, Severity and Mortality associated with COPD and Smoking in patients with COVID-19: A Rapid Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis JS Alqahtani, T Oyelade, AM Aldhahir, SM Alghamdi, M Almehmadi, AS Alqahtani, S Quaderi, S Mandal, J Hurst Primarily China No Data
3/26/2020 Risk Factors Associated with Clinical Outcomes in 323 COVID-19 Patients in Wuhan, China L Hu, S Chen, Y Fu, Z Gao, H Long, H-w Ren, Y Zuo, H Li, J Wang, Q-b Xv, W-x Yu, J Liu, C Shao, J-j Hao, C-z Wang, Y Ma, Z Wang, R Yanagihara, J-m Wang, Y Deng China No Data
3/25/2020 Smoking, vaping and hospitalization for COVID-19 K Farsalinos, A Barbouni, R Niaura China No Data
3/24/2020 Epidemiological and clinical features of 125 Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Fuyang, Anhui, China R Wang, M Pan, X Zhang, X Fan, M Han, F Zhao, M Miao, J Xu, M Guan, X Deng, X Chen, L Shen China No Data
3/24/2020 Prevalence of Underlying Diseases in Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis A Emami, F Javanmardi, N Pirbonyeh, A Akbari China No Data
3/24/2020 COVID-19 clinical characteristics, and sex-specific risk of mortality: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis MJ Nasiri, S Haddadi, A Tahvildari, Y Farsi, M Arbabi, S Hasanzadeh, P Jamshidi, M Murthi, M Mirsaeidi China No Data
3/24/2020 A comparative multi-centre study on the clinical and imaging features of comfirmed and uncomfirmed patients with COVID-19 C Miao, J Zhuang, M Jin, H Xiong, P Huang, Q Zhao, L Miao, J Du, X Yang, P Huang, J Hong China No Data
3/20/2020 COVID-19 and Smoking: A Systematic Review of the Evidence C Vardavas, K Nikitara China No Data
3/20/2020 Incidence, clinical characteristics and prognostic factor of patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis X Zhao, B Zhang, P Li, C Ma, J Gu, P Hou, Z Guo, H Wu, Y Bai China No Data
3/16/2020 Clinical characteristics of refractory COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China P Mo, Y Xing, Y Xiao, L Deng, Q Zhao, H Wang, Y Xiong, Z Cheng, S Gao, K Liang, M Luo, T Chen, S Song, Z Ma, X Chen, R Zheng, Q Cao, F Wang, Y Zhang China No Data
3/13/2020 Initial clinical features of suspected Coronavirus Disease 2019 in two emergency departments outside of Hubei, China. Journal of Medical Virology W Zhu, K Xie, H Lu, L Xu, S Zhou, S Fang China No Data
3/12/2020 Active Smoking Is Not Associated With Severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) G Lippi, BM Henry China No Data
3/12/2020 Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study F Zhou, T Yu, R Du, G Fan, Y Liu, Z Liu, J Xiang, Y Wang, B Song, X Gu, L Guan, Y Wei, H Li, X Wu, J Xu, S Tu, Y Zhang, H Chen, B Cao China No Data
3/12/2020 Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in adolescents and young adults J Liao, S Fan, J Chen, J Wu, S Xu, Y Guo, C Li, X Zhang, C Wu, H Mou, C Song, F Li, G Wu, J Zhang, L Guo, H Liu, J Lv, L Xu, C Lang China No Data
3/11/2020 Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19 H Cai China No Data
3/10/2020 Clinical Characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 Pneumonia Compared to Controls in Chinese Han Population Y Xu, Y-r Li, Q Zeng, Z-b Lu, Y-z Li, W Wu, S-y Dong, G Huang, X-h Wang China No Data
3/10/2020 Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Pneumonia 2019 (COVID-19): An Updated Systematic Review Z Fang, F Yi, K Wu, K Lai, X Sun, N Zhong, Z Liu China No Data
2/28/2020 Analysis of factors associated with disease outcomes in hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus disease. W Liu, Z-w Tao, W Lei, Y Ming-Li, L Kui, Z Ling, W Shuang, D Yan, L Jing, H-g Liu, Y Ming, H Yi China No Data
2/28/2020 Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China W-j Guan, Z-y Ni, Y Hu, W-h Liang, C-q Ou, J-x He, L Liu, H Shan, C-l Lei, D Hui, B Du, L-j Li, et al. China No Data
2/24/2020 Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China C Huang, Y Wang, X Li, L Ren, J Zhao, Y Hu, L Zhang, G Fan, J Xu, X Gu, Z Cheng, T Yu, J Xia, Y Wei, W Wu, X Xie, W Yin, H Li,M Liu, Y Xiao, H Gao, L Guo, J Xie, G Wang, R Jiang, Z Gao, Q Jin, J Wang, B Cao China No Data
2/21/2020 Chest CT Findings in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Its Relationship With Clinical Features J Wu, X Wu, W Zeng, D Guo, Z Fang, L Chen, H Huang, C Li China No Data
2/21/2020 Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study X Yang, Y Yu, J Xu, H Shu, J Xia, H Liu, Y Wu, L Zhang, Z Yu, M Fang, T Yu, Y Wang, S Pan, X Zou, S Yuan, Y Shang China No Data
2/19/2020 Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China J-j Zhang, X Dong, Y-y Cao, Y-d Yuan, Y-b Yang, Y-q Yan, CA Akdis, Y-d Gao China No Data